FROM THE SMALLEST TO THE BIGGEST


There are various objects in the universe , from microscopic to macroscopic which are of different shapes and sizes. Apart from the sizes of what we see daily, look at these mind boggling sizes of various elements which exists at this very moment in our universe.

A String – part of string theory: 1.62*10-35 meters

A String illustrated

Calabi- Yau Manifold (A Planck scale manifold): 1.62*10-35 meters

Quantum Foam – Tiny change in space time: 1.62*10-35  meters

Quantum foam

Planck Particle- A tiny black hole: 1.14*10-34 meters

1 MeV Neutrino- Most neutrinos on earth are from sun: 4*10-23 meters

High energy neutrino – The size of 250GeV neutrino: 7* 10-21 meters

Preon – Hypothetical component of quarks: 7*10-21 meters

Preon

Upper size limit of a quark – protons are made up of 2 up quarks and 1 down quark: 1*10-18 meters.

Proton: 1.62*10-15 meters

Gamma Ray- Lightning strikes can produce gamma ray: 8*10-13 meters

Neon atom: 7.6*10-11 meters

Carbon atom:  1.34*10-10 meters

Neodymium atom: 4.12*10-10 meters

Neodymium (Nd). Diagram of the nuclear composition, electron configuration, chemical data, and valence orbitals of an atom of neodymium-144 (atomic number: 60), an isotope of this element. The nucleus consists of 60 protons (red) and 84 neutrons (orange). 60 electrons (white) successively occupy available electron shells (rings). Neodymium is a lanthanide in period 6, and the f-block of the periodic table. It melts at 1024 degrees Celsius. The trend across the lanthanide series arises from the failure of electrons filling an inner f-subshell (here, within the 4th ring) to shield outer (valence) electrons from increasing nuclear charge.

Cesium atom: Largest known radius of any element: 5.96*10-10 meters

Carbon Nanotube – Strongest tensile strength: 1*10-9 meters

Lipid bilayer – Forms the cell membrane of all cells: 4*10-9 meters

Hepatitis B virus-  1/3rd of the world has been infected by this:4.2*10-8 meters

Influenza virus – High mutation rate: 1.2*10-7 meters

Measles virus: 1.5*10-7 meters

Mimi virus – Extremely large and old species of virus: 6*10-7 meters

Ebola virus: 1*10-6 meters

Escherichia Coli – A common bacterial model organism: 2*10-6 meters

Neutrophil – involved in inflammatory response: 1.2*10-5  meters

Pollen – Carries male genetic info of a plant: 9*10-5 meters

Scydosella Musawasensis – The smallest known species of beetle: 3.25*10-4 meters

Scydosella Musawasensis

Amoeba proteus: 7.6*10-4 meters

Pelomysca Palustris – Capable of containing 1000’s of nuclei: 5*10-3 meters

Paedophryne Amauensis  – Smallest known vertebrate: 7.7*10-3 meters

Glasswing butterfly –  Migrating great distances – 5.8*10-2 meters

House cat: 2.5*10-1 meters

Chimpanzee: 1.2 meters

Humans:  1.7 meters

Emu:  1.9 meters

Rothschild’s giraffe- Only 1500 left: 5.88 meters

Boeing  747B: 76.3 meters

Interplanetary transport system: 122 meters

RMS Queen Mary 2 – Cruise  : 345 meters

Burj Khalifa: 828 meters

EL Capitan – Signature peak of west Texas: 2,458 meters

Methone – Moon of Saturn :  2,900 meters

Popocatepetl – mountain:  5,426 meters

Mt K2: 8,611 meters

PSR J0348+0432 – Pulsar orbits white dwarf in 2hrs 27 mins  :  13 Km

PSR J0348+0432 illustrated

PSR B1257+12  – Pulsar with 3 planets : 20 Km

Calypso – Loose surface material : 21.4 Km

Olympus Mons – Largest known volcano in solar system : 22 Km

Olympus Mons

Epimetheus – Moon of Saturn : 116.2 Km

Janus – Orbital with Epimetheus : 179 Km

Janus

Hyperion – Moon with chaotic rotation : 360.2 Km

Proteus – Created from debris of triton : 420 Km

Miranda – has 5-10  km cliff : 471.6 Km

Miranda

Charon  – Discovered in 1978 : 1,212 Km

Iapetus – Has 580 km  crater: 1,469 Km

Pluto – 98% nitrogen ice: 2,374 Km

Triton – Set to be destroyed by Neptune in 3.6 billion years: 2,707 Km

Triton

Europa – Water jets plumes up to 200km : 3,122 Km

Moon: 3,474.2 Km

IO – Inner most Galilean Moon: 3,643 Km

Callisto – Below 100- 150  km from surface, an ocean may reside there: 4,820 Km

Callisto

Mercury –  Smallest planet in solar system: 4,879 Km

Titan – Large lakes of methane : 5,151 Km

Titan

Ganymede – Largest moon in solar system: 5,628 Km

Mars – Has giant dust storms: 6,779 Km

Venus – 92times atmospheric pressure of earth : 12,103 Km

Earth-  4.54 Billion years old: 12,742 Km

Kepler 452B  – Earth like planet: 19,113 Km

Neptune – Blue, cause methane absorbs red light: 49,258 Km

Uranus – Temperatures can go down to -224.15C : 51,118 Km

Saturn – Beautiful rings: 120,536 Km

Jupiter – Largest planet in the solar system: 142,984 Km

HD209458 B: Exoplanet with windspeeds up to 7000 Kmph: 163,000 Km

HD209458 B illustrated

Wasp 78B – 1734 degree C : 243,000 Km

Wasp 78B

2M1207 – Brown dwarf with 25 Jupiter masses: 347,850 Km

2M1207

Gliese 229 – A star which has a brown dwarf and a super Neptune in orbit: 960,000 Km

The Sun – Red giant in 5 billion years: 1,391,400 Km

Alpha Centauri A – 4th brightest star in the night sky:1,707,000 Km

KIC 8462852 – Unexplained dimming : 2,198,000 Km

Regulus – Distorted shape : 4,302,000 Km

Regulus

VFTS352 – A contact binary start system with temperatures more than 40000 C: 20,133,000 Km

VFTS352 illustrated

Sagittarius A* – Blackhole at center of milky way : 44,000,000 Km

Aldebaran – Alpha Tauri B is binary partner : 61,499,000 Km

1 SWASP J1407B – Exoplanet with gigantic ring system : 90,000,000 Km

RIGEL – Lost 3 solar masses since formed: 109,781,000 Km

Pistol Star – In 20 seconds a year worth of solar energy is released: 425,768,000 Km

Chi Cygni – Shows 10,000 fold variation in brightness: 484,207,000 Km

RHO Cassiopeiae – A yellow hyper giant :  625,950,000 Km

R Leporis – An Intensely red star: 695,500,000 Km

Antares : 1,228,606,000 Km

Mu Cephei – Set to explode as a type 2 supernova: 1,753,164,000 Km

VY Canis Majoris : 1,975,788,000 Km

Westerlund 1-26 – Coolest start at 2,726 C : 2,128,842,000 Km

UY Scuti – Largest known star: 2,376,511,000 Km

NGC 1277 – Blackhole : 59,200,000,000 Km

SDSSJ0100+2802- Hyper luminous quasar located 12.8 Billion light years from earth: 70,900,000,000 Km

S5 0041+81 – Largest Black hole: 236,700,000,000 Km

1 Light year = 9,461,000,000,000 Km or 5,879,000,000,000 miles

1 Light year(ly) = 9.461 trillion kilometers (5.879 trillion miles)


Cat’s eye nebula – Made from central star: 0.2 Light years

This gallery shows four planetary nebulas from the first systematic survey of such objects in the solar neighborhood made with NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. The planetary nebulas shown here are NGC 6543 (aka the Cat’s Eye), NGC 7662, NGC 7009 and NGC 6826. X-ray emission from Chandra is colored purple and optical emission from the Hubble Space Telescope is colored red, green and blue. A planetary nebula is a phase of stellar evolution that the sun should experience several billion years from now, when it expands to become a red giant and then sheds most of its outer layers, leaving behind a hot core that contracts to form a dense white dwarf star. A wind from the hot core rams into the ejected atmosphere, creating the shell-like filamentary structures seen with optical telescopes. The diffuse X-ray emission is caused by shock waves as the wind collides with the ejected atmosphere. The properties of the X-ray point sources in the center of about half of the planetary nebulas suggest that many central stars responsible for ejecting planetary nebulas have companion stars.

Horsehead Nebula – Part of Orion molecular cloud complex: 7 ly

Crab Nebula – Supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 1054 AD: 11 ly

Orion Nebula: 24ly

Messier 3 – 8 billion year old; contains 500,000 stars: 90 ly

Veil Nebula- Observed by William Herschel  in 1784 Sept 5 –  100 ly

Carina Nebula – 6,500 to 10,000 ly away: 920 ly

NGC  604  – One of the largest H-II   region galaxy: 1,520 ly

NGC604

I Zwicky 18 – Extremely rare population III Star: 3,000 ly

I Zwicky 18

Smith’s cloud- Huge cloud of hydrogen; set to collide with milky way: 9,800 ly

Great rift- dart dust clouds: 30,000 ly

Great rift

Triangulum galaxy – 40 billion stars: 60,000 ly

Milky Way galaxy : 100,000 ly

NGC 7331 – 40 million ly away: 142,000 ly

Andromeda galaxy- 2.5 million light years away: 220,000 ly

Malin-1 – Largest spiral galaxy: 650,000 ly

Malin-1

Coma B – Galaxy weighs as much as 15 trillion solar masses: 1,300,000 ly

Coma B

IC1101 – Largest galaxy known : 2,100,000 ly

The local group – Our galaxy resides in this group : 10,000,000 ly

Virgo Supercluster – The local group resides here: 110,000,000 ly

Boötes void – Immense region of empty space: 250,000,000 ly

Laniakea Supercluster- Virgo Supercluster is a part of this  :520,000,000 ly

Pisces- Cetus Supercluster complex – Galaxy filaments including Laniakea Supercluster: 1,000,000,000 ly

Sloan great wall – roughly spans 1/60th diameter of observable universe  : 1,380,000,000 ly

Sloan great wall

Huge large quasar group – Contains 73 Huge Quasars: 4,000,000,000 ly

Herculeus –Corona borealis great wall  – Largest known structure in the observable universe: 10,000,000,000 ly

Herculeus –Corona borealis great wall

The observable universe : 93,000,000,000 ly

The universe size is currently unknown as it is always expanding. The Size of our universe might be even mightier than we can ever imagine if our universe is a part of multiverse.

Hope you like it !

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